Table of Content
History of Iran
Iran is one of the vast countries with a very complex history. According to historical scholars, Iran has a special attraction due to its greatness and glory in different historical periods. For this reason, studying the history of Iran is interesting and significant for many people around the world.
A great part of Iran history was formed when the Aryans came to this land and helped form a new civilization.
In general, the history of Iran is divided into two parts, pre-Islamic Iran and post-Islamic Iran, and each is divided into smaller parts.
Research shows that Aryans, a white generation, initially lived in the northern Black Sea and Caspian Sea along the Sihon and Jeyhun rivers, but later some went to Europe and others to Iran and India. For this reason, they are called Asian tribes. They also speak Indo-European languages. The Aryans of India and Iran lived together for many years, so they had a common language for a long time.
It is interesting to know that the word Aryan means noble. Historically, the Aryan tribes were highly humble and knowledgeable people and avoided war and violence. Many scholars believe that this way of thinking and behaving helped them to succeed in different fields.
Iranians are not Arabs, but there are Arabic speaking people in some cities and provinces of Iran, especially in Khuzestan province.
Iran- Current Situations
As it was said, Iran has a very interesting history, which has made the world not to forger the events taken place in the history of Iran. Also, what happened in the past has a great impact on the current situation of Iran.
For example, the history of Iran has had very positive effects on the tourism industry. This is very clear to all of us and we know that every year a large number of tourists and scholars from around the world come to this country to visit historical sites and do research, which in turn has changed the economic situation of Iran.
The important point is that the history of Iran is completely related to its current situation, and everything we know about current situation of Iran is rooted in the past.
Provinces of Iran
Iran has 31 provinces and its capital is Tehran. Country divisions include provinces, towns, districts, and counties, respectively. There is no autonomous region in the country and they are all appointed by the Ministry of Interior. There is also a council at each level, and the Supreme Council of Provinces is made up of representatives of the provincial councils. The Ministry of Interior has the authority to appoint mayors as well, but the members of the city council are elected locally. The villages are also run by governor of the rural district, appointed by the district council.
Different provinces and cities have unique characteristics, which are examined in the following part.
East Azerbaijan Province
East Azerbaijan province is one of the northern provinces of Iran and Tabriz, one of the oldest cities in Iran, is its capital. The census conducted in 2016 revealed that about 5% of the population of Iran live in East Azerbaijan province.
This province hosts a lot of travelers and tourists every year due to its cool weather and natural attractions such as Sahand Heights, Kandovan Mineral Spring, Liqvan Valley, Alexander Cave.
The province has 2 airports. The main airport of this province is called Tabriz Shahid Madani International Airport.
West Azerbaijan Province
West Azerbaijan Province is another northern province of Iran, and its capital is Urmia. Due to its proximity to the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, it has a humid climate. For this reason, cold air masses enter this province in winter, and it may not be easy for non-natives to tolerate cold weather in this province. Also, this province has a special importance and attraction for many tourists, due to its natural attractions, including Lake Urmia.
The province has 4 airports, and its main airport is Urmia Shahid Bakeri International Airport.
Ardabil province is one of the provinces allocating a part of Iran history with its traditional and old context. Ardabil province has 10 other cities in addition to Ardabil which is its capital.
The name Ardabil is taken from the Avestan word Artavil. The word Arta means holy and the word Vil means city, which in combination means Holy City.
Ardabil province is sister city with Volgograd province in Turkey.
The province has two airports, and its main airport is Ardabil International Airport.
Isfahan is the capital of Isfahan city. This province is located almost in the center of Iran. Isfahan is one of the historical and industrial cities of Iran.
Isfahan, due to its beautiful historical places such as Si-o-se-pol bridges, Naqsh-e-Jahan Square, Aali Qapo and Vank Cathedral provides a special attraction for tourists, especially foreign tourists.
Many famous factories such as Zob Ahan are located in this province.
The province has two airports, and its main airport is Isfahan Shahid Beheshti International Airport.
Alborz province is the newest province of Iran, which was officially listed as a province of Iran in 2010. Alborz mountain range passes through the north of this province and as a result, it is called Alborz province. The capital of this province is Karaj which is introduced as the fifth populous city in Iran. It is said that Karaj is the second immigrant city in Iran after Tehran.
The province has an airport called Payam Airport.
Ilam province, which is called the bride of Zagros, is located in the west of the Zagros mountain range. Ilam province was established in 1974 and its capital has been Ilam. Ilam province has many oil, gas and non-metallic minerals. Also, part of the province economy is based on agriculture and animal husbandry.
The province has an airport called Ilam Airport.
Bushehr is the capital of Bushehr province. This province is one of the southern provinces of the country. Due to its geographical location, it has made great progress in date production and export. This province is also one of the exporters of fish and shrimp to other parts of Iran and the world.
Bushehr province and cities such as Bushehr, Bandar Genaveh, and Bandar Deylam, the coastal cities of Iran along the Persian Gulf, host a lot of travelers in winter and spring. These cities also have connections with the countries surrounding the Persian Gulf such as the UAE, Qatar, Kuwait, Bahrain, and Saudi Arabia.
Bushehr province is sister cities with Mersin in Turkey and Hyderabad in India.
The province has 4 airports, and its main airport is Bushehr International Airport.
Tehran is the capital of Tehran province, which is one of the most important parts of Iran. Perhaps, its importance is due to the fact that the capital of Iran is located there and has somehow formed the connection between different parts of Iran and Tehran.
Tehran province has attracted many immigrants for years with its pleasant climate, some of whom live seasonally and others permanently in these areas. Also, some emerging places such as Milad Tower and Nature Bridge, has attracted many travelers and visitors from all around the country and the world to this province.
Imam Khomeini Airport and Mehrabad Airport are among the most important airports in Iran, which are located in Tehran.
Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province
Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province, is the twentieth largest province in Iran and its capital is Shahrekord. An interesting point about this province is that its inhabitants speak Persian, Lori Bakhtiari and Turkish.
The special lifestyle of the inhabitants of this province is one of the tourist attractions of this province. In addition to natural attractions, this province has attracted a lot of tourists by its various religious ceremonies at different times.
The province has an airport called Shahrekord Airport.
South Khorasan Province
Until 2004, the South Khorasan, Khorasan Razavi, and North Khorasan provinces were all the same. After the division of this province, Birjand city was selected as the capital of South Khorasan province. This province is ranked third in terms of area. Also, the city of Tabas, which belonged to Yazd province up to some years ago, is now one of the cities of South Khorasan province.
The province has 2 airports, and its main airport is Birjand International Airport.
Khorasan Razavi Province
Mashhad is the capital of Khorasan Razavi province. This province is one of the religious provinces of Iran.
Every year, the city of Mashhad hosts a large number of travelers because of Imam Reza Shrine, which has helped religious tourism to prosper in the city. The city of Mashhad is known as one of the religious cities of Iran and the world. This city is one of the most populous cities in Iran.
The province has 4 airports, and its main airport is Mashhad Shahid Hasheminejad International Airport.
North Khorasan Province
North Khorasan Province, another part of the old province of Greater Khorasan, is ranked 15th in terms of area. The capital of this province is Bojnourd. Bojnourd is the most populous city in North Khorasan province, followed by Shirvan. The province is geographically located in a place where few tourists travel there. In fact, there are a few natural and historical tourist attractions in this province.
The province has 2 airports, and its main airport is Bojnourd airport.
Khuzestan province is the center of oil and gas production in Iran. The capital of this province is Ahvaz. Also, the cities of Khorramshahr, Abadan, Andimeshk, Bandar Mahshahr, Shushtar, Dezful are the well-known cities located in this province. This province has a semi-arid climate and is one of the tropical regions of Iran.
Khuzestan province is sister city with Bursa province in Turkey.
The province has 6 airports, and its main airports are Ahwaz International Airport and Abadan International Airport.
In 1994, two new provinces were emerged with the separation of Qazvin city and its surrounding, one of which was Zanjan province. The capital of Zanjan province is Zanjan. Most of the inhabitants of this province speak Azerbaijani Turkish. Zanjan province is also one of the provinces that has allocated part of its economy and income to the production of handicrafts and souvenirs. For example, knives and carpets are among the famous handicrafts of this province.
The province has an airport called Zanjan Airport.
Semnan province is one of the largest provinces in Iran. Its capital is Semnan registered as the most populous city in this province. Other cities such as Garmsar, Shahroud and Bastam are also located in this province.
This province has 2 airports, and its main airport is Semnan airport.
Sistan and Baluchestan Province
Zahedan is the capital of Sistan and Baluchestan province. This province is the second largest province in Iran and is registered as the largest province in Iran followed by Kerman province. One of the attractions of Sistan and Baluchestan province is having mountains, forests and swamps. The province also is a great location for growing tropical fruits.
The province has 5 airports, and its main airport is Zahedan International Airport.
Shiraz is the capital of Fars province. This province is one of the provinces with many historical sites and is known as one of the religious cities of Iran.
Persepolis, Pasargad and Naghsh-e-Rostam are the most famous historical places in Fars province.
Other famous places such as Bagh-e-Eram, Bagh-e-Afifabad, Narenjestan-e- Ghavam, the tomb of Hafez and Saadi, two great Iranian poets are located in Shiraz.
The Shah Cheragh Shrine and Ala al-Din Husayn are among the most well-known religious sites in Iran and Shiraz.
Shiraz is also known as one of the most advanced medical centers in the world. For example, many travelers have come to Shiraz for some surgeries such as liver transplants for many years.
Shiraz is a sister city with the following cities:
- Weimar in Germany
- Nanjing in China
- Chongqing in China
- Kuala Lumpur in Malaysia
- Agadir in Morocco
- Dushanbe in Tajikistan
- Patch in Jungary
- Nicosia in Cyprus
The province has 9 airports, and 2 airports are under construction. The main airport is Shahid Dastgheib International Airport, which is one of the most important airports in Iran.
Qazvin province is one of the provinces close to Tehran province, and its capital is Qarvin. In ancient Greek writings, Qazvin is referred to as “Rajia”. During the Safavid dynasty, the city of Qazvin was the capital of Iran for some time. For this reason, tourists who are interested in history, would like to visit Qazvin.
The province has an airport called Qazvin Airport. This airport is mostly used for spraying farms and recreational flights.
Qom is the capital of Qom province. This province is another religious province of Iran where the shrine of Hazrat Masoumeh and Jamkaran Mosque are located. This province is registered as the smallest province of Iran.
Qom, like Mashhad, hosts religious travelers in all seasons due to its religious sites.
The city of Qom is known as a research center for religious sciences in Iran.
Qom province is close to the provinces of Isfahan and Tehran, and therefore many people from these two provinces travel to Qom. Also, this province is located almost in the center of Iran, so to travel from north to south or vice versa and from east to west or vice versa, you have to pass through this province.
The province has an airport under construction.
Kurdistan province, whose capital is Sanandaj, is one of the mountainous provinces of Iran. Baneh, Marivan and Saqez are among the cities of this province. It is stated in the history of Kurdistan province, that it was called “Seer” in the past. Seer in Persian means 30 heads. Most residents of Kurdistan Province speak Kurdish, even in some parts of the province, residents have no familiarity with Persian. The Kurds are one of the most noble Iranian tribes.
This province has 2 airports, and its main airport is Ardalan airport.
Kerman is the capital of Kerman province. Like many other places in Iran, Kerman is listed as one of the most popular provinces in terms of tourism with its valuable historical context. One of the most famous historical monuments of this province is Bam Citadel and Shazdeh Garden in Mahan (or Shazdeh Garden).
One of the largest pistachio growing areas is located in this province, a large part is cultivated in Rafsanjan. Kerman pistachio is one of the most famous pistachios in the world.
The province has 5 airports, and its main airport is Kerman International Airport.
Kermanshah province is the seventh largest province in Iran. The capital of Kermanshah province is Kermanshah. Kermanshah is one of the mountainous regions of Iran, located between the Iran plateau and the Mesopotamian Plain. It is said that in the past, this province was the center of Median dynasty. This province is registered as one of the provinces with pleasant weather. Also, its historical monuments can attract the attention of many tourists.
Kermanshah province is sister city with the following cities:
- Roseburg in the United States
- Split in Croatia
- Ghazi Aintab in Turkey
- The island of Sicily in Italy
The province has an airport, which is Kermanshah International Airport.
Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Provinces
The capital of Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad province is Yasuj. This province, which is habitat of Lurish people, is located along the Zagros and Dena mountains. Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad province is rich in oil and gas resources. The province also has many walnut and citrus orchards that have contributed to its economic prosperity. This province has become one of the salmon raising areas with the establishment of fish farming ponds.
The province has 2 airports, and its main airport is Yasuj Airport.
Gorgan is the capital of Golestan province. This province has borders with Mazandaran province. In terms of climate, it has high humidity like Gilan and Mazandaran provinces. Many travelers who go to Mashhad for pilgrimage also travel to this province.
Golestan Province is sister city with Mangystau Province in Kazakhstan.
This province has 2 airports, and its main airport is Gorgan airport.
Rasht is the capital of Gilan province. It is the northern and green province of Iran. Gilan province, like Mazandaran province, has many natural attractions. Also, this province is one of the producers and exporters of tea and rice due to its tea and rice fields. The climate of Gilan province, like other northern provinces of Iran, is very humid.
The province has an airport, which is called Rasht Airport.
Khorramabad is the capital of Lorestan province and the twentieth largest city in Iran. The highest part of this province is Oshtrankooh, which is located between the cities of Dorud, Azna, and Aligudarz. The people living in this province are called Lor. This word was chosen for the inhabitants of this region during the period when the Arabs invaded Iran, and means the nomads of Iran.
The province has an airport, which is called Khorramabad Airport.
The capital of Mazandaran province is Sari. This province is located in the north of Iran and has borders with the provinces of Tehran, Gilan, and Golestan. Unfortunately, the climate of Mazandaran province has caused the destruction of many historical places.
The tourist attractions of this province include the forest and the sea. The province is green and therefore its cities enjoy clean air and many people prefer to travel to this province. Many people also travel to the coastal cities of this province to enjoy the Caspian Sea.
Mazandaran province is sister city with Dar es Salaam province in Tanzania.
The province has 3 airports, and its main airport is Sari International Airport.
The capital of Markazi province is Arak, which is called the industrial capital of Iran, and was formerly called Iraq. It is said that the city of Arak was formed about two centuries ago during the reign of Fath Ali Shah Qajar. Markazi province is the hometown of many great people such as Professor Mahmoud Hesabi and Mirza Taghi Khan Amirkabir. For this reason, this province is valuable and important for many Iranians.
The province has an airport, which is called Arak Airport.
Bandar Abbas is the capital of Hormozgan province. This province, like Bushehr province, is one of the southern provinces of the country. It is similar to Bushehr province in terms of industry and business. In fact, many people working in this province are engaged in the production of dates and fishing.
Hormozgan province is sister city with Mersin province in Turkey.
The province has 8 airports, and its main airports are Bandar Abbas International Airport, Kish International Airport, and Qeshm International Airport.
Hamedan province, whose capital is Hamedan, is registered as one of the ancient cities of Iran. The city of Hamedan was known as Hegmataneh during the rule of the Medes. The province has many rivers and springs, and the most famous one is Gamasiab River. It is said that a large part of the province income comes from pottery handicrafts. Most of the pottery workshops are located in Lalehjin city.
Hamedan province is sister city with Sparta province in Turkey.
This province has an airport, which is called Hamedan airport.
Yazd is the capital of Yazd province. Yazd province, with its many historical sites and suitable space for researchers in the field of astronomy, is one of the most popular places for tourists.
In addition to attracting tourists and travelers, this city has been known as the infertility center in Iran and around the world.
This province has an airport, which is called Yazd Airport.
Islands of Iran
Iran has 19 residential islands and 24 non-residential islands.
The residential islands are:
- Abu Musa
- Greater and Lesser Tunb
- Persian Island
- Greater farur
- Mino Island
The uninhabited islands are:
- Umm al-Karam (Gorm)
- Umm al-Sileh
- Tahmadon (Tahmado or Jibrin)
- Dara (Deira)
- 3 dandoon
- Shalheh Haj Hossein
- Shalheh Sovamer
- Sheikh Kerameh
- Shidvar (Maroo, Shatoor)
- Lesser Farur
- Ghabre Nakhoda
- Mir Mohenna
Ethnicity, Language, and Religion
Different ethnic groups live in Iran.
The official language of Iran is Persian.
In Iranian law, the official religion of Islam is Shiite.
Iran has borders with Turkey, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Turkmenistan, Armenia and Iraq. It is bordered to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan.
It is bordered to the west by Turkey and Azerbaijan.
It is bordered to the west by Iraq. It shares maritime borders with Oman, Kuwait, the UAE, Qatar, Bahrain and Saudi Arabia to the south.
Iran has different climates from north to south and from west to east. In general, it is one of the most special countries in the world.
Travelers can experience different climates in one season of the year. In hot seasons, Iran has regions with cool weather. The provinces of West Azerbaijan, East Azerbaijan, and Kurdistan are among the provinces with very cool weather.
The southern provinces of the country such as Hormozgan, Bushehr and Khuzestan provinces are tropical regions of the country. It is interesting to know that in winter, when the weather may be cold in many parts of Iran, these provinces have a temperate climate.
Science and Technology
Iran is one of the developed countries in many sciences. For example, Iran has always been introduced as one of the most advanced medical centers in the world. This event can also be rooted in Iran’s past. Our country, with scientists like Abu Ali Sina, has transmitted its medical sciences to other countries of the world.
Iran has been successful in different sciences which have made significant changes in the employment and economic situation. Also, Iran has reached independence with the help of scientists and great people, to the point of exporting some products and selling technical knowledge in the field of products.
There are great universities in this country, such as the University of Tehran, Sharif University of Technology, Amirkabir University, Shahid Beheshti University, Shiraz University, etc., which have to some extent attracted students from other countries.
Other Kinds of Information
The area of Iran is 1648195 square kilometers (or 636372 square miles), with 7.7% water area.
The currency is Rial, and Toman is used. To convert Rials to Tomans, one zero must be removed from the right. Iran’s time zone is +3:30 UTC.
Iran’s telephone code is 0098.
The ISO 3166 code of Iran is IR.
Iranian drive on the right.
National domain of Iran is .ir